CH_{3}OH + CO → CH_{3}COOH

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### Word Equation

Methanol + Carbon Monoxide = Acetic Acid

One mole of

and one mole of

combine lớn sườn one mole of

### Reactants

### Methanol - CH

_{3}OHMethyl Hydroxide Hydroxymethane Monohydroxymethane Colonial Spirit Columbian Spirit Spirit Of Wood Pyroxylic Spirit Methylol CH3OH Molar Mass CH3OH Oxidation Number

### Carbon Monoxide - CO

### Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics of the reaction can be calculated using a lookup table.

#### Is the Reaction Exothermic or Endothermic?

CH_{3}OH (g methanol) | 1 mol | -201.08304 kJ/mol | 201.08304 kJ |
---|---|---|---|

CO (g) | 1 mol | -110.54128 kJ/mol | 110.54128 kJ |

CH_{3}COOH (l acetic acid) | 1 mol | -484.13064 kJ/mol | -484.13064 kJ |

ΣΔH°_{f}(reactants) | -311.62432 kJ | ||

ΣΔH°_{f}(products) | -484.13064 kJ | ||

ΔH°_{rxn} | -172.50632 kJ |

ΣΔH°_{f}(reactants) > ΣΔH°_{f}(products), sánh CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH is **exothermic** (releases heat).

#### Is the Reaction Exoentropic or Endoentropic?

ΔS = S_{products} - S_{reactants}. If ΔS < 0, it is exoentropic. If ΔS > 0, it is endoentropic.

CH_{3}OH (g methanol) | 1 mol | 239.70136 J/(mol K) | -239.70136 J/K |
---|---|---|---|

CO (g) | 1 mol | 197.9032 J/(mol K) | -197.9032 J/K |

CH_{3}COOH (l acetic acid) | 1 mol | 159.8288 J/(mol K) | 159.8288 J/K |

ΣΔS°(reactants) | 437.60456 J/K | ||

ΣΔS°(products) | 159.8288 J/K | ||

ΔS°_{rxn} | -277.77576 J/K |

ΣΔS°(reactants) > ΣΔS°(products), sánh CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH is **exoentropic** (decrease in entropy).

#### Is the Reaction Exergonic or Endergonic?

ΔG = G_{products} - G_{reactants}. If ΔG < 0, it is exergonic. If ΔG > 0, it is endergonic.

CH_{3}OH (g methanol) | 1 mol | -162.42288 kJ/mol | 162.42288 kJ |
---|---|---|---|

CO (g) | 1 mol | -137.27704 kJ/mol | 137.27704 kJ |

CH_{3}COOH (l acetic acid) | 1 mol | -389.9488 kJ/mol | -389.9488 kJ |

ΣΔG°(reactants) | -299.69992 kJ | ||

ΣΔG°(products) | -389.9488 kJ | ||

ΔG°_{rxn} | -90.24888 kJ |

ΣΔG°(reactants) > ΣΔG°(products), sánh CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH is **exergonic** (releases energy).

### Reaction Expressions

K_{c} or Q = ( [CH_{3}COOH] ) / ( [CH_{3}OH] [CO] )

(assuming all reactants and products are aqueous. substitutue 1 for any solids/liquids, and Psubstance for gases.)

rate = -(Δ[CH_{3}OH] / Δt) = -(Δ[CO] / Δt) = (Δ[CH_{3}COOH] / Δt)

(assuming constant volume in a closed system and no accumulation of intermediates or side products)

## Instructions

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To balance a chemical equation, enter an equation of a chemical reaction and press the Balance button. The balanced equation will appear above.

- Use uppercase for the first character in the element and lowercase for the second character. Examples: Fe, Au, Co, Br, C, O, N, F.
- Ionic charges are not yet supported and will be ignored.
- Replace immutable groups in compounds lớn avoid ambiguity. For example, C6H5C2H5 + O2 = C6H5OH + CO2 + H2O will not be balanced, but XC2H5 + O2 = XOH + CO2 + H2O will.
- Compound states [like (s) (aq) or (g)] are not required.
- You can use parenthesis () or brackets [].

## How To Balance Equations

Read our article on how lớn balance chemical equations or ask for help in our chat.

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## Balance CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH Using the Algebraic Method

To balance the equation CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH using the algebraic method step-by-step, you must have experience solving systems of linear equations. The most common methods are substitution/elimination and linear algebra, but any similar method will work.

### Label Each Compound With a Variable

Label each compound (reactant or product) in the equation with a variable lớn represent the unknown coefficients.

a CH

_{3}OH + b CO = c CH_{3}COOH### Create a System of Equations

Create an equation for each element (C, H, O) where each term represents the number of atoms of the element in each reactant or product.

**C**: 1a + 1b = 2c**H**: 4a + 0b = 4c**O**: 1a + 1b = 2c### Solve For All Variables

Use substitution, Gaussian elimination, or a calculator lớn solve for each variable.

- 1a + 1b - 2c = 0
- 4a - 4c = 0
- 1a + 1b - 2c = 0

Use your graphing calculator's rref() function (or an online rref calculator) lớn convert the following matrix into reduced row-echelon-form:

[ 1 1 -2 0] [ 4 0 -4 0] [ 1 1 -2 0]

The resulting matrix can be used lớn determine the coefficients. In the case of a single solution, the last column of the matrix will contain the coefficients.

Simplify the result lớn get the lowest, whole integer values.

- a = 1 (CH3OH)
- b = 1 (CO)
- c = 1 (CH3COOH)

### Substitute Coefficients and Verify Result

Count the number of atoms of each element on each side of the equation and verify that all elements and electrons (if there are charges/ions) are balanced.

CH

_{3}OH + CO = CH_{3}COOHReactants Products C 2 2 ✔️ H 4 4 ✔️ O 2 2 ✔️ Since there is an equal number of each element in the reactants and products of CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH, the equation is balanced.

## Balance CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH Using Inspection

The law of conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created or destroyed, which means there must be the same number atoms at the over of a chemical reaction as at the beginning. To be balanced, every element in CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH must have the same number of atoms on each side of the equation. When using the inspection method (also known as the trial-and-error method), this principle is used lớn balance one element at a time until both sides are equal and the chemical equation is balanced.

### 1. Count the number of each element on the left and right hand sides

Reactants (Left Hand Side) | Products (Right Hand Side) | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Reactants | Products | |||||

CH_{3}OH | CO | Total | CH_{3}COOH | Total | ||

C | 1 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 2 | ✔️ |

H | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | ✔️ | |

O | 1 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 2 | ✔️ |

The number of atoms of each element on both sides of CH3OH + CO = CH3COOH is equal which means that the equation is already balanced and no additional work is needed.

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